Clubs & Societies

Debating Society by Cruikshank, Isaac, Published 5th May 1795 by Laurie & Whittle, London. Courtesy of The Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University.

Debating societies

Debating societies became well-established institutions in London and provincial cities, catering for the taste for public debate among the lower and middling sorts. Topics could be frivolous, but when societies debated politics, religion, and the economy they were felt to voice threateningly radical opinions.
Fictitious portrait of Robert Burns, by John Burnet, after Sir William Allan line engraving, circa 1838. NPG D32438 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Edinburgh clubs and societies

This entry gives an overview of the clubs and societies in Edinburgh during the long eighteenth century. These were indeed a reflection of the expectations of the Scottish society.
Three Arcadians, published by John Smith, mezzotint, circa 1683-1729. © National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG D11802

Literary Academies

À distance ou en présence, les académies littéraires se font lieu d’interactions et de sociabilités intellectuelles à l’époque moderne. Des académies royales hautement institutionnalisées aux académies salonnières italiennes, elles incarnent les pratiques lettrées et savantes dans les milieux intellectuels européens.